If you are choosing between majoring in actuarial science or economics, you might want to know what each degree has to offer, their differences and which would be more appropriate. This post will help you decide between the two degrees.

At a glance:

EconomicsActuarial science
Payscale reported
average pay
Ease of finding a jobModerateModerate
Types of jobs
you can qualify for
Data analyst
Business analyst
Operations manager
Financial analyst
Actuarial analyst
Actuarial analyst
Financial analyst
Actuarial analyst
Data analyst
Actuarial associate
Difficulty of the
Key things to noteCan be difficult to
get a job with just
a bachelor’s degree.

Many of the more
lucrative economics
jobs require at least
a master’s degree.

Becomes a lot more
employable if
you combine it with
programming and
data analysis skills.
Generally more employable
than an economics
degree by itself.
But, still not as
employable as alternatives
such as a computer science

Can be difficult to
get an actuarial
job at the
entry level.

Specialized for the
actuarial career
path. This makes
it slightly easier
to get an acturial
job but harder to
get jobs from other

Can improve your
job prospects by
getting a minor in
another field such as
computer science.
Source for actuarial science salary and jobs
Source for economics salary and jobs

There are many things to consider when choosing between the two degrees. There are also some things you should consider doing when you choose either of the degrees.

Details about an economics degree

Below are some of the key details of the economics major.

Current pay

According to Payscale, the average salary of a person with a bachelor’s degree in economics is $71,173. However, for someone fresh out of college, the average will likely be lower.

Types of jobs you can get

With a bachelor’s degree in economics you can expect to qualify for jobs such as:

Data analyst
Business analyst
Operations manager
Financial analyst
Actuarial analyst

Since economics makes use of some statistics, you can qualify for many different types of “analyst” roles. Many of these roles will require the knowledge of programming languages such as R and Python. While doing an economics degree, it would help a lot to make sure to learn R and Python. It would also help to be able to show projects that show that can make use of R and Python languages in a useful way.


The difficulty of an economics degree will depend a lot on the specific program. Some economics programs will be more math-heavy and focused on statistics and its use in economics. Whereas, other programs will not even require calculus and will be more focused on broad economic theory.

However, an economics bachelor’s degree will almost always be less difficult than an equivalent actuarial science degree.

If you do decide on an economics major, it would help a lot to consider what you want to get out of it and the jobs you are interested in so that you can choose an economics program that is suitable for you.

Types of classes you’ll be taking

As mentioned above, economics programs can vary significantly. However, there are some classes that you can expect to be taking including:

Principles of microeconomics
Principles of macroeconomics
Intermediate microeconomics
Intermediate macroeconomics
Introductory statistics and probability
Political economics
Topics in money and finance
Topics in banking

Depending on the program, you might also be required to take mathematics classes including:

Linear algebra
Discrete mathematics

Important things to be aware of

It is common for economics majors to end up in programming type roles such as with data analytics after graduating. It would help you a lot to make sure to take some programming classes as electives and a CS minor would likely be a very good option. Doing this would also open you up to well-paying roles such as software engineering.

In addition, if you are interested in going to graduate school for economics, it would help a lot to make sure to take more advanced mathematics classes since they are often required for graduate economics. At the very least, it would be necessary to take a class in differential calculus, integral calculus, multiple variable calculus, linear algebra and discrete mathematics.

As mentioned above, the classes in an economics degree can vary a lot. It would help to look at the degree sequence for the economics degree program at your university and to make sure the required classes are suitable for the types of jobs you are interested in.

More details about the economics major

I have written more about the economics major here and I have written more about how hard you can expect the major to be here.

Details about a degree in actuarial science

Below are some details about a degree in actuarial science.

Average pay

According to Payscale, the average pay of someone with a degree in actuarial science is $67,014. According to the BLS, the median pay of an actuary was 108,350 in 2019. The BLS also reports that the number of actuary jobs is expected to grow by 18% by 2029 which they say is much higher than the average across all jobs.

However, something to consider, is that it can take many years, after graduating, to become an actuary since there will be a number of additional exams to pass. Also, the job market at the entry-level is competitive.


A degree in actuarial science will be specialized for becoming an actuary. This is good if you want to be an actuary. However, it can mean that it will make it more difficult for you to get jobs in other fields that you could have qualified for with a similar major such as statistics or mathematics.

Also, you can still get a job as an actuary without an actuarial degree. Degrees such as statistics, mathematics and applied mathematics can be just as competitive for the job role, depending on the classes you take.

However, there are many skills that you will learn in the major that will still allow you to qualify you for other job roles. This is mainly because you will be learning a lot about statistics. You should also learn how to program in Python, R and how to be proficient in Excel. This should help qualify you for “analyst” type job roles in particular and possibly data science roles as well.

Jobs that you could get with a degree in actuarial science could include:

  • Actuary
  • Actuarial analyst
  • Financial analyst
  • Actuarial analyst
  • Data analyst
  • Actuarial associate

Getting a minor in an applied field, such as computer science, could also help to broaden your job opportunities. It would also help to complete projects related to the job role you are interested in and to try to get summer internships in that role.


The major will involve a lot of mathematics, probability and statistics. As a result, the major is not an easy major. When compared with most economics degrees, you can expect an actuarial science major to be more difficult.

It will also be necessary for you to take additional exams in order to qualify as an actuary. It will even be necessary for you to pass some exams for an entry-level actuary position. These exams can be difficult and many people fail them every year.

Types of classes

The major will have you take courses from a number of different disciplines. Required classes you can expect to take will include:

  • Calculus
  • Linear algebra
  • Two courses in calculus-based probability and statistics
  • Computer science
  • Economics
  • Finance
  • Business
  • Actuarial science classes as available

Alternative degrees

Instead of actuarial science, there are some similar degrees that can give you a path towards becoming an actuary while also opening you up to other job roles. These degrees can include:

  • Statistics
  • Applied mathematics
  • Engineering
  • Computer science
  • Physics

The job roles you will qualify for will depend a lot on the classes you choose within each major, the projects you complete and the internships you get.

Things to consider

If you are interested in becoming an actuary, getting an actuarial degree might not be a requirement. Instead, it might be more appropriate for you to get a related degree and to make sure to take the necessary classes to become an actuary. Also, it will be important to make sure to complete the necessary actuarial exams while an undergrad.

It might be the case that, half-way through your time as an undergrad, you will decide that you do not want to be an actuary. If you major in a more general quantitative subject such as math or statistics, it should be easier for you to transition towards a different field than with an actuarial major. If you do decide to major in a more general field, it will still be important to choose more employable classes and to complete personal projects so that you can be more competitive for specific jobs.

Something to be aware of is that actuarial science will focus more on applying traditional statistics techniques to smaller datasets. However, each year companies are acquiring larger and larger datasets. This is making machine learning techniques used on large datasets, in data science, more and more relevant each year.

Machine learning and big data is getting incorporated more into actuarial degrees and the exams. However, it would still help a lot to make sure to learn python, manipulation of big datasets using things such as the Pandas library and machine learning. So, that you can also be competitive for data science type roles.

One more thing to be aware of is that actuarial careers can have good job satisfaction because they have good pay, moderate working hours and low stress. However, they also tend to have low job meaning since most of the jobs will involve helping already wealthy people earn more money. Alternative careers, such as in data science, can allow you to have a more positive socially impactful role.

Reasons to choose an economics degree

Since an economics degree is more general than an actuarial science degree it should qualify you for a wider range on jobs. However, the generality can make it less competitive for specific jobs. This is why it would help to make sure to take classes related to the job that you are interested in.

An actuarial degree will be heavier on mathematics than an economics degree at the undergraduate level. Also, the junior and senior-level classes can be very difficult. As a result, you can expect an actuarial degree to be a lot more difficult and time-demanding than an economics undergraduate degree. However, this can also mean that an actuarial degree will make you more competitive for mathematical job roles that tend to be better paying. Also, graduate schools often expect to see multiple math classes on your transcript especially for economics.

Reasons to choose a degree in actuarial science

The use of statistics and programming can give you the opportunity to get desirable job roles that does not involve being an actuary. These job roles can include data analyst, data scientist, machine learning engineer or software engineer. However, it would help to take classes from these fields to make yourself more competitive for them.

Actuarial jobs are commonly rated as some of the best jobs you can get. If you are absolutely set on becoming an actuary then getting a degree in actuarial science would be appropriate. In this case, it would help to try to minor in something else such as computer science since this will help to reduce your risk if you are not able to find an entry-level job as an actuary.

However, if you are not absolutely sure that you want to become an actuary, it would likely be a better option to get a related degree such as applied math or statistics but to make sure to take the relevant classes and exams to become an actuary. I have written about actuarial science vs statistics here.

Both degrees can give better prospects if combined with a more applied minor

In both cases, supplementing the degree with a more applied minor related to the type of job you want would help a lot. It would also help a lot to try to complete projects related to the job you are interested in and to try to get summer internships while you are an undergraduate.

It would serve you well to really take the time now to research the types of jobs you think you would be interested in and what sorts of classes you should be taking for those jobs. One thing that could help would be to talk with recruiters for that job role and to ask what they look for in terms of classes, projects, internships and the most common major.


I created and currently manage College Corner. I received a Bachelor's degree in Mathematics from the University of Nevada Las Vegas. My goal is to help current students do better in college and to help future students plan for college. You can read more about me and my website here.